Wednesday, 25 February 2015

 (General principles of microbial concepts)

Microorganisms (Latin micro = small) are living beings so small (< 40 µm or 0.04 mm) that they are not visible by the naked eye. Microorganisms related to human health include certain bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites.

Types of Microorganisms:

Microorganisms can be, according to their characteristics, divided into several groups:
  • bacteria, viruses, certain fungi and parasites
  • pathogenic (capable of causing disease), non-pathogenic, and opportunistic (causing disease when they have an opportunity, like in people with low immune system)
  • acellular (without cell, like viruses), unicellular (bacteria, yeasts and certain parasites), or multi-cellular (molds)

 1. Bacteria
Bacteria are unicellular organisms, about few microns in size (1 micron (µm) = 1/1,000 of a millimetre), consisting of DNA, cytoplasm, structures needed for metabolism and reproduction, cell membrane, cell wall and capsule .Certain bacteria use flagella, tail-like appendages, to propel themselves.

  Bacterial structure

Bacteria multiply asexually by dividing into two daughter cells
Bacteria can be divided into several groups:
  • Spheres or cocci (like Staphylococcus aureus), rods or bacilli (like Lactobacillus acidophilus), spirals or spirochetes (like Treponema pallidum); bacterial shape can help in their recognizing under the microscope
  • Aerobic bacteria, like Mycobacterium tuberculosis, need oxygen to thrive, while  anaerobic, like Clostsridium difficile, do not. Facultative anaerobic bacteria, like Pseudomonas aureginosa, can live in aerobic and anaerobic environment.
  • Gram positive (G+) bacteria, like Streptococcus, and Gram negative (G-) bacteria, like Klebsiella
  • Pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria

Certain bacteria can form endospores, a kind of encapsulated bunkers within a bacteria that enable vital parts of bacteria to survive in harsh conditions, like freezing or boiling water, dessication, lack of nutrients, etc. Some bacteria can survive weeks, and some millions of years in this form.
In the human body, bacteria usually cause localized infections, like pneumonia or skin infections. Bacterial infections can be diagnosed by growing a bacterial culture from a sample of infected body fluid (e.g. urine, blood), stool, discharge (e.g. sputum) or tissue (e.g. mucosal layer of the stomach). Most of bacterial infections can be successfully treated by anti-bacterial drugs – antibiotics.
Examples of bacteria pathogenic for a human are:
  • Staphylococcus aureus, causing skin infections, pneumonia, and infection of the heart valves, etc.
  • Streptococcus pyogenes, causing “strep throat”, cellulitis, etc.
  • Neisseria gonorrheae, causing gonorrhea
  • Salmonella, causing diarrhea in food poisoning
  • Helicobacter pylori, causing chronic gastritis
  • Mycoplasma, causing atypical pneumonia

Examples of non-pathogenic bacteria:
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis, a part of normal skin flora
  • Lactobacillus acidophilus, a part of normal intestinal flora
Examples of opportunistic bacteria:
  • Certain intestinal bacteria, like Escherichia coli and Enterobacter live in the human intestine without causing any symptoms, but in a person with lowered immune system they may overgrow and cause a bowel infection.

2. Viruses

Viruses are simple microorganisms, containing only DNA or RNA molecule and capsule. They cannot survive outside the host for long periods, so they are mainly transmitted by blood-to-blood or stool-to-mouth route. In the human body, they have to invade the cells to multiply

Virus cycle: entry of herpes simplex virus (HSV) into the cell (on the left), multiplying within the cell and release (right) from the cell 

Viruses usually cause systemic infections, affecting the whole body. Examples of viruses, pathogenic for a human:
  • Rhinovirus, causing common cold
  • Influenzavirus, causing flu, bird flu, swine flu
  • Herpes simplex virus causing herpes labialis (cold sore) or herpes genitalis
  • HIV, causing AIDS
  • Ebolavirus, causing hemorrhagic fever
Viruses can be diagnosed by finding specific antibodies in the sample of blood (serologic tests). Vaccination against several virus infections is possible; only few viral infections can be treated by anti-viral medications, though.

3. Fungi

Fungi are widely present in the environment and also on the human skin, gut and vagina.
Fungi are subdivided on the basis of their life cycles, the presence or structure of their fruiting body and the arrangement of and type of spores (reproductive or distributional cells) they produce.
The three major groups of fungi are:
·         multicellular filamentous moulds
·         macroscopic filamentous fungi that form large  fruiting bodies. Sometimes the group is referred  to as ‘mushrooms’, but the mushroom is just the part of the fungus we see above ground which is also known as the fruiting body.
·         single celled microscopic yeasts

4. Parasites

Human intestinal parasites are either one-cell organisms or intestinal worms that live in the small or large intestine and use the stool or blood from intestinal wall as a source of food.

One-cell organisms, like Giardia lamblia, also called Giardia duodenale 
 1),Cryptosporidium (crypto) and Cyclospora, utilize nutrients from the stool. They belong to a living kingdom Protozoa (Gk. protos = first; zoa = animals). They may cause inflammation of thesmall intestine thus hampering absorption of nutrients. Entamoeba hystolytica lives predominantly in the colon.

Intestinal Worms (Helminths):

Intestinal worms (helminths), like roundworms (hookworms), whipworms,  Ascaris andTrichinella), tapeworms and flukes, are few millimeters to several meters in size, they eat the bowel content or suck the blood from the intestinal wall and can cause about the same symptoms as one-cell parasites.


Beneficial Microorganisms

Microorganisms, like certain bacteria and yeasts, living on the human skin or in the nose, mouth, throat, small and large intestine and vagina, are part of the normal human flora; they prevent overgrowth of harmful microorganisms. Some of these microbes, when overgrow, may become pathogenic, though.

Harmful or Pathogenic Microorganisms

Pathogenic means capable of causing disease. An actual harmful effect of a microbe to the body depends on:

  • Microbial virulence - a relative ability of a microbe to cause a disease; for example, a certain, highly virulent subtype of influenza virus may cause a bird flu, which is deadly in a high percent, while “usual” influenza virus is not.
  • Invasion through the body’s barriers; staph bacteria might not cause any harm to a person with an intact skin, but can cause a severe infection of a skin wound.
  • Amount of microbes; eating few bites of food contaminated with staph bacteria may go unnoticed, while eating the whole portion of the same food may cause a severe food poisoning.
  • Body’s defense (immune) system; patients with a weak immune system, like those receiving corticosteroids, often get oral thrush (candida infection of the mouth), while otherwise healthy people do not.

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