Tuesday, 6 January 2015

Area 3 – Social/Behavioral/Administrative Sciences (22%)

3F Biostatistics and Research Design
Types of Clinical study designs

The following list describes each type of clinical study design and cites an example.
1. Meta-Analysis- A way of combining data from many different research studies. A meta-analysis is a statistical process that combines the findings from individual studies.
Example: Anxiety outcomes after physical activity interventions: meta-analysis finding.
          Types of clinical Study designs

2. Systematic Review-A summary of the clinical literature. A systematic review is a critical assessment and evaluation of all research studies that address a particular clinical issue. The researchers use an organized method of locating, assembling, and evaluating a body of literature on a particular topic using a set of specific criteria. A systematic review typically includes a description of the findings of the collection of research studies. The systematic review may also include a quantitative pooling of data, called a meta-analysis.
Example:Complementary and alternative medicine use among women with breast cancer: a systematic review.
3.Randomized Controlled Trial -A controlled clinical trial that randomly (by chance) assigns participants to two or more groups. There are various methods to randomize study participants to their groups.
Example:Meditation or exercise for preventing acute respiratory infection: a randomized controlled trial.
4. Cohort Study (Prospective Observational Study) -A clinical research study in which people who presently have a certain condition or receive a particular treatment are followed over time and compared with another group of people who are not affected by the condition.
Example: Smokeless tobacco cessation in South Asian communities: a multi-centre prospective cohort study
5. Comparative Study- Comparison of outcomes, results, responses, etc. for different techniques, therapeutic approaches or other inputs.
Example: Impact of emerging health insurance arrangements on diabetes outcomes and disparities: rationale and study design.
6. Case-control Study -Case-control studies begin with the outcomes and do not follow people over time. Researchers choose people with a particular result (the cases) and interview the groups or check their records to ascertain what different experiences they had. They compare the odds of having an experience with the outcome to the odds of having an experience without the outcome.
Example:Non-use of bicycle helmets and risk of fatal head injury: a proportional mortality, case-control study
7. Cross-sectional study -The observation of a defined population at a single point in time or time interval. Exposure and outcome are determined simultaneously.
Example: Fasting might not be necessary before lipid screening: a nationally representative cross-
sectional study
8. Case Reports and Series -A report on a series of patients with an outcome of interest. No control group is involved.
Example: Students mentoring students in a service-learning clinical supervision experience: an educational case report.
9. Ideas, Editorials, Opinions - Put forth by experts in the field.
ExampleHealth and health care for the 21st century: for all the people.
10. Animal Research Studies -Studies conducted using animal subjects.
ExampleIntranasal leptin reduces appetite and induces weight loss in rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO).
11. Lab Research -"Test tube" experiments conducted in a controlled laboratory setting.

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